below the Mill Dam

masters of milling. After the water flows through the water wheel it is then returned to the stream below the mill. Oliver Evans' book "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide" also solved the great hydrostatic paradox of the time. Wooden water wheels had several drawbacks: they rotted out every ten to twenty years, and they could not be operated in cases of ice, imbalance and debris. An area above a natural constriction would be ideal to create a mill pond. Virginia mills operated on a local trade and on feed production.

Together with the animated characters of the Wheel, the Waters and the Millstones, they converse about past and present events and, in doing so, express controversial points of view, according to their designated social positions. The larger mills were called " merchant mills " whose owners were capitalists with large investments. This accumulated water will run the mill for hours. A race may be from a few feet to miles in length depending on the distance between the dam and the mill site. There is the " head " or fall of water and the "head" of the barrel which the miller places his flour.

In the United Kingdom and Europe the undershot, breast shot, and pitch back water wheels were classified as undershot because the water flowed under these types of water wheels. Size of mill structure. Many early colonists built both tub mills and vertical mills.