the Enlightenment unequivocally on the side of the critics and revolutionaries. African vernaculars replaced the traditional Latin of the mass, and the process of inculturation resulted in the incorporation into the liturgy of African traditions in music and dance. In 1769 the Spanish Franciscan Junpero Serra founded a mission in San Diego, the first of 22 stations that would stretch up the California coast. The trial by battle was tolerated because it also involved a call to God, and the one who came forth the victor did so not from brute force but through the assistance of god. The brotherhood cultivated by groups such as the Freemasons and the Illuminati, a rationalist secret society, constituted a rival to the feeling of community that the church had once provided. Liberation theology was widely supported throughout Latin America, and Christian base communities, which expanded the role of the laity in the church, assumed an influential place in church and society. French missionaries also penetrated the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi valley, but few traces of their efforts remained after English-speaking settlers arrived in the North American interior late in the 18th century. He also revived the Society of Jesus, condemned Freemasonry, and patronized art and education. Although the issue of trusteeism would emerge again, the decisions of the council defined the administrative structure of the church and established a precedent that was restated at subsequent councils.
Both Jansenism and Quietism must be seen not only as parties in a controversy but also as symptoms of religious vitality. Along with the challenge of interpreting the decisions of Vatican II, the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico faced the aggressive proselytism of Protestant Christians, including Pentecostals, whose message had great appeal. Laws were passed to compel candidates for the Roman Catholic priesthood to attend a German university for at least three years. In the 1950s and 60s, when the countries of Africa gained their independence, Catholics and other Christians played important roles in the development of new states such as Tanzania.
Roman Catholicism, the age of, reformation and Counter-, reformation
The, age of the, reformation, Volume I (Dodo Press
Albrecht Dürer: The, age of, reformation and Renaissance - Cincinnati
The, age of, reformation part 1- #6 of, the, history of the, christian
The Age of Reformation : The founding of aarp in Ojai
The Counter-Reformation was instituted wherever there had been a Protestant Reformation, but it met with strikingly varied degrees of success. Increasing persecution in the mid-1920s inspired the Cristero Rebellion (192629 in which the peasantry, without the support of the bishops, rose up in defense of the church. Spanish missionary efforts came to an end in the early 19th century, and their record was one of mixed success at best. It granted freedom of worship to all Frenchmen while recognizing that the faith of most of them was Roman Catholicism. This forfeiture became a source of great revenue to the church or King depending upon what law was broken. Suppression of the Jesuits Among the repercussions of the controversy over Chinese rites was an intensification of the resentment directed against the Society of Jesus, to which some of the other movements mentioned above also contributed. France, the first daughter of the church, was the nation-state whose development during the 17th and 18th centuries most strikingly dramatized the collision, so much so that Gallicanism, as the nationalistic ecclesiastical movement was called in France, is still the term used to refer. The missionaries also failed to learn the languages of the Native American population and, therefore, were unable to convert the indigenous peoples. Decades of scholarly research into Buddhist and Confucian thought had prepared Ricci to attach the Roman Catholic understanding of the Christian faith to the deepest spiritual apprehensions of the Chinese religious tradition. A devotion such as that of the 4th-century Greek theologians Gregory of Nyssa and Evagrius of Pontus was completely ruled out by the legalistic theology that condemned Quietism.